v 4.1.1

Category Education

**R** can be described as a language and environment that allows for statistical computing and graphics. It is a GNU project that is similar to the S environment and language which were developed at Bell Laboratories (formerly AT&T) by John Chambers and his colleagues. R can be considered a different implementation for S. However, most code written for S runs unchanged under R.

R is extensible and offers a variety of statistical (linear, nonlinear modelling and classical statistical tests, time series analysis, classification, clustering and graphic techniques. Research in statistical methodology is often done using the S language. R offers an Open Source route to participate in this activity.

R's strength is its ability to produce well-designed plots of publication-quality quality, including formulae and mathematical symbols. While R has taken great care to avoid making mistakes in graphics design, the user still retains complete control.

Version 4.1.1:

- require(pkg, quietly = TRUE) is quieter and in particular does not warn if the package is not found.

- Use of ftp:// URIs should be regarded as deprecated, with on-going support confined to method = "libcurl" and not routinely tested. (Nowadays no major browser supports them.)
- The non-default method = "internal" is deprecated for http:// and ftp:// URIs for both download.file and url.
- On Windows, method = "wininet" is deprecated for http://, https:// and ftp:// URIs for both download.file and url. (A warning is only given for ftp://.)
- For ftp:// URIs the default method is now "libcurl" if available (which it is on CRAN builds).
- method = "wininet" remains the default for http:// and https:// URIs but if libcurl is available, using method = "libcurl" is preferred.

- make check now works also without a LaTeX installation. (Thanks to Sebastian Meyer's PR#18103.)

- make check-devel works again in an R build configured with --without-recommended-packages.
- qnbinom(p, size, mu) for large size/mu is correct now in a range of cases (PR#18095); similarly for the (size, prob) parametrization of the negative binomial. Also qpois() and qbinom() are better and or faster for extreme cases. The underlying C code has been modularized and is common to all four cases of discrete distributions.
- gap.axis is now part of the axis() arguments which are passed from bxp(), and hence boxplot(). (Thanks to Martin Smith's report and suggestions in PR#18109.)
- .First and .Last can again be set from the site profile.
- seq.int(from, to, *) and seq.default(..) now work better in large range cases where from-to is infinite where the two boundaries are finite.
- all.equal(x,y) now returns TRUE correctly also when several entries of abs(x) and abs(y) are close to .Machine$double.xmax, the largest finite numeric.
- model.frame() now clears the object bit when removing the class attribute of a value via na.action (PR#18100).
- charClass() now works with multi-character strings on Windows (PR#18104, fixed by Bill Dunlap).
- encodeString() on Solaris now works again in Latin-1 encoding on characters represented differently in UTF-8. Support for surrogate pairs on Solaris has been improved.
- file.show() on Windows now works with non-ASCII path names representable in the current native encoding (PR#18132).
- Embedded R on Windows can now find R home directory via the registry even when installed only for the current user (PR#18135).
- pretty(x) with finite x now returns finite values also in the case where the extreme x values are close in size to the maximal representable number .Machine$double.xmax.
- Also, it's been tweaked for very small ranges and when a boundary is close (or equal) to zero; e.g., pretty(c(0,1e-317)) no longer has negative numbers, currently still warning about a very small range, and pretty(2^-(1024 - 2^-1/(c(24,10)))) is more accurate.
- The error message for not finding vignette files when weaving has correct file sizes now. (Thanks to Sebastian Meyer's PR#18154.)
- dnbinom(20, , 1) now correctly gives 0, and similar cases are more accurate with underflow precaution. (Reported by Francisco Vera Alcivar in PR#18072.)